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History of Business and Professional Women

The hearings discussed how and why legislation such as the Paycheck Fairness Act is needed to address remaining systemic barriers to women being paid fairly.

BPW Foundation published ground-breaking research providing a unique snap shot of women veterans as they return to the civilian workplace. Women Veterans in Transition provides recommendations for employers, social organizations and policy makers to assist this talented group of working women transition successfully into their lives.

BPW Foundation released Successful Workplaces Digest, an innovative how-to guide for employers to improve workplaces through policies and programs that support employees. Request your copy of a blueprint for an innovative workplace. Obama for President of the United States. Thirty-three percent for Sen. McCain, 15 percent remained undecided, and 2 percent were not voting this election cycle. This merged organization represents over years of combined experience and will offer membership opportunities.

BPW Foundation defines successful workplaces as work environments that embrace and practice diversity, equity and work life balance. However, sometimes employees may blow the whistle as an act of revenge. Rosemary O'Leary explains this in her short volume on a topic called guerrilla government. Over the years, I have learned that the motivations driving guerrillas are diverse. The reasons for acting range from the altruistic doing the right thing to the seemingly petty I was passed over for that promotion.

Taken as a whole, their acts are as awe inspiring as saving human lives out of a love of humanity and as trifling as slowing the issuance of a report out of spite or anger. Discussions of whistleblowing and employee loyalty usually assume that the concept of loyalty is irrelevant to the issue or, more commonly, that whistleblowing involves a moral choice that pits the loyalty that an employee owes an employer against the employee's responsibility to serve the public interest.

Larmer describes the standard view of whistleblowing in the Journal of Business Ethics by explaining that an employee possesses prima facie based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise duties of loyalty and confidentiality to their employers and that whistleblowing cannot be justified except on the basis of a higher duty to the public good.

The ethics of Edward Snowden's actions have been widely discussed and debated in news media and academia worldwide. A person is diligently tasked with the conundrum of choosing to be loyal to the company or to blow the whistle on the company's wrongdoing.

Discussions on whistleblowing generally revolve around three topics: Many whistleblowers have stated that they were motivated to take action to put an end to unethical practices, after witnessing injustices in their businesses or organizations.

The first metric involves a violation of the organization's bylaws or written ethical policies. These violations allow individuals to concretize and rationalize blowing the whistle. In these cases, whistleblowers have been criticized for being driven by personal biases. In addition to ethics, social and organizational pressure are a motivating forces. A study identified that individuals are more likely to blow the whistle when several others know about the wrongdoing, because they would otherwise fear consequences for keeping silent.

Legal protection for whistleblowing varies from country to country and may depend on the country of the original activity, where and how secrets were revealed, and how they eventually became published or publicized. Over a dozen countries have now adopted comprehensive whistleblower protection laws that create mechanisms for reporting wrongdoing and provide legal protections to whistleblowers. Over 50 countries have adopted more limited protections as part of their anti-corruption, freedom of information, or employment laws.

There are laws in a number of states. Whistleblowers Australia is an association for those who have exposed corruption or any form of malpractice, especially if they were then hindered or abused.

The Office of the Public Sector Integrity Commissioner of Canada PSIC [70] provides a safe and confidential mechanism enabling public servants and the general public to disclose wrongdoings committed in the public sector. It also protects from reprisal public servants who have disclosed wrongdoing and those who have cooperated in investigations. The Office's goal is to enhance public confidence in Canada's federal public institutions and in the integrity of public servants. The Act, which came into force on April 15, , applies to most of the federal public sector, approximately , public servants.

Not all disclosures lead to an investigation as the Act sets out the jurisdiction of the Commissioner and gives the option not to investigate under certain circumstances.

On the other hand, if PSIC conducts an investigation and finds no wrongdoing was committed, the Commissioner must report his findings to the discloser and to the organization's chief executive. Also, reports of founded wrongdoing are presented before the House of Commons and the Senate in accordance with The Act. As of June , a total of 9 reports have been tabled in Parliament.

The Tribunal can grant remedies in favour of complainants and order disciplinary action against persons who take reprisals. It creates a comprehensive system for the protection of whistleblowers in the public and private sector. It is based on the Public Interest Disclosure Act The Government of India has been considering adopting a whistleblower protection law for several years. The Whistle Blowers Protection Act, has received the Presidential assent on May 9, and the same has been subsequently published in the official gazette of the Government of India on May 9, by the Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.

The government of Ireland committed to adopting a comprehensive whistleblower protection law in January The bill reportedly covers both the public and private sectors. The Netherlands has measures in place to mitigate the risks of whistleblowing: Dutch media organizations also provide whistleblower support; on 9 September [80] a number of major Dutch media outlets supported the launch of Publeaks, [81] which provides a secure website for people to leak documents to the media.

Publeaks is designed to protect whistleblowers. It operates on the GlobaLeaks software developed by the Hermes Center for Transparency and Digital Human Rights, [82] which supports whistleblower-oriented technologies internationally. The draft introduces articles a bis to a septies , 3 , 2 d. Article a ter introduces an obligation on employees to report irregularities to their employer before reporting to an authority.

An employee will, however, not breach his duty of good faith if he reports an irregularity to an authority and. Article a quarter provides that an employee may exceptionally directly report to an authority. Exceptions apply in cases. The draft does not improve on protection against dismissal for employees who report irregularities to their employer.

Monitor produced a whistleblowing policy in November that all NHS organizations in England are obliged to follow. It explicitly says that anyone bullying or acting against a whistleblower could be potentially liable to disciplinary action. Whistleblowing tradition in the United States started with Benjamin Franklin leaking a few letters Hutchinson had written to Thomas Whately , resulting in the American Revolution.

To be considered a whistleblower in the United States , most federal whistleblower statutes require that federal employees have reason to believe their employer violated some law, rule, or regulation; testify or commence a legal proceeding on the legally protected matter; or refuse to violate the law. In cases where whistleblowing on a specified topic is protected by statute, U. Supreme Court decision, Garcetti v. Ceballos held that the First Amendment free speech guarantees for government employees do not protect disclosures made within the scope of the employees' duties.

In the United States, legal protections vary according to the subject matter of the whistleblowing, and sometimes the state where the case arises. While this patchwork approach has often been criticized, it also responsible for the United States having more dedicated whistleblowing laws than any other country. The first US law adopted specifically to protect whistleblowers was the United States False Claims Act revised in , which tried to combat fraud by suppliers of the United States government during the American Civil War.

The Act encourages whistleblowers by promising them a percentage of the money recovered by the government and by protecting them from employment retaliation.

It guaranteed the right of federal employees to furnish information to the United States Congress. The patchwork of laws means that victims of retaliation need to be aware of the laws at issue to determine the deadlines and means for making proper complaints. Some deadlines are as short as 10 days Arizona State Employees have 10 days to file a "Prohibited Personnel Practice" Complaint before the Arizona State Personnel Board , while others are up to days.

Those who report a false claim against the federal government, and suffer adverse employment actions as a result, may have up to six years depending on state law to file a civil suit for remedies under the US False Claims Act FCA. However, the "original source" must also be the first to file a federal civil complaint for recovery of the federal funds fraudulently obtained, and must avoid publicizing the claim of fraud until the US Justice Department decides whether to prosecute the claim itself.

Such qui tam lawsuits must be filed under seal, using special procedures to keep the claim from becoming public until the federal government makes its decision on direct prosecution. In , Manning was convicted of violating the Espionage Act and sentenced to 35 years in prison for leaking sensitive military documents to WikiLeaks.

The federally recognized National Whistleblower Appreciation Day is observed annually on July 30, on the anniversary of the country's original whistleblower protection law.

There are comprehensive laws in New Zealand and South Africa. A number of other countries have recently adopted comprehensive whistleblower laws including Ghana , South Korea , and Uganda. They are also being considered in Kenya and Rwanda. The European Court of Human Rights ruled in that whistleblowing was protected as freedom of expression.

And in February , Nigeria also set up the whistleblowing policy against corruption and other ills in the country. Many NGOs advocate for stronger and more comprehensive legal rights and protections for whistleblowers.

Whistleblowers that may be at risk of those they are exposing are now using encryption methods and anonymous content sharing software to protect their identity. Tor , a highly accessible anonymity network, is one that is frequently used by whistleblowers around the world. Recently specialized whistleblowing software like SecureDrop and GlobaLeaks has been built on top of the Tor technology in order to incentivize and simplify its adoption for secure whistleblowing.

The song is written from the perspective of Snowden. In July , CBS will debut a new reality television show entitled "Whistleblower" hosted by lawyer, former judge and police officer Alex Ferrer which will cover qui tam suits under the False Claims Act against companies that have allegedly defrauded the federal government. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Whistleblower disambiguation.

For whistleblower protection in the United States, see Whistleblower protection in the United States. The video course is accompanied by a workbook and bibliography. This encyclopedic text features summaries of federal sector arbitration awards addressing significant issues and major arbitration principles from through Awards are arranged by topic. Principles includes a table cross-referencing arbitrators to the awards they have issued.

Major topics include the nature of arbitration, the collective bargaining agreement, arbitrability, grievances, hearings, management rights, contract interpretation, common substantive arbitration topics, settlement, remedies, counsel fee and damages. Updated annually, the EEO Guide , written by Ernie Hadley with Associate Editor, Natania Davis , offers the most comprehensive analysis of federal sector EEO decisions, litigation practice, statutes, regulations, policies, guidance, and practical advice available to practitioners.

In two volumes, updated annually, the MSPB Guide is a complete research tool for Board cases, laws, procedure, and litigation practice and is the seminal text on this complex area of the law.